The first row are the different types of items.
The second row are the different types of weapons.
Sword;Axe;Bow;Spear;Whip;Scythe;Staff;Legendary;Soul of Weapon.
The type may not be same as in eng ver as i translated literally.
Otherwise the columns beside the picture is as follows:
name of weapon; level required to use; AP; Durability; Magic Atk; weapon speed which is same for all sword.
Would be nice to see a comparison on these two weapons as well if you have an archer character Aiwarz. Your sword/axe comparison spelled out very well the differences and for my warrior maiden I switched over to sword and am quite happy doing so. My gun chick will be very unhappy though if I have to switch her over to bow.
When you get your hand on legend weapons it might change again what you prefer. Legend axe has +darkness % damage, while legend sword has +holy % damage. And Dire warrior use darkness attacks while Temple warriors use holy attacks.
So basicly, always use a (refined) weapon. And then just use the one with best stats you can find.